UNIT 4 Architecture Throughout History

Decline and fall of the Roman Empire

In the 5th century CE the Roman Empire started to disintegrate and in 395 CE it divided between Eastern and Western. In 410 CE the Visigoths sacked Rome and finally in 476 CE the Western Roman Empire disappears

The Romans left a huge legacy behind them that became Christianized because of this a lot of pictorial, sculptural and consctructive techniques were lost but they came back in the Reinassance.

12 imprescindibles de Alcázar de San Juan

Byzantine

Gran Palacio de Constantinopla | Wiki | Historia de la Humanidad Amino

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The architecture is mostly religious with and emphasis in the interior, the most relevant work of architecture is the Great Palace of Constaninople.

Because of the increase of charity in the society there was a need to build places like hospitals, hospices and orphanages being stone the most used material.

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  • Hagia Sophia: it represents the union between the Empire and the Church, it has the cetral plan of a Roman basilica with the dome that is not as large as the one of the Pantheon but it was an artistic and techincal achievement. Byzantine architecture is known as the architecture of heaven because of the symbolism.
Santa Sofía - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
  • Military architecture: the cities were small and were focused on having a good defensive ability, this and the distribution of water were of great importance. With them the cities went from having protective walls to become a military fortification.
Byzantine Fortifications from the Fifth to the Tenth Century | Weapons and  Warfare

Preromanesque

The system is transfromed by a pyramidal system of vassalage. Apart from the churches and monasteries that followed the Christian tradition, castles were developed.

Longobards in Italy. Places of the Power (568-774 A.D.) - UNESCO World  Heritage Centre

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  • The Lombards (6-8th century): because of their nomadic lifestyle they didn´t have a specific style until they acquire an uniform style based on their ideological and conscious use of the plundered elements of Roman buildings. They had great training in the goldsmithing.

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Iglesia de San Juan de Baños

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  • The Visigoths ( 7-8th century): it takes up the model of the traditional Roman basilica and delineates a central floor typology. They were distinguished by the basilical floor plan, flat apse, horseshoe arch, Corinthian capitals, stone walls without buttresses and wooden roofs.

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Carolingian architecture | HiSoUR - Hi So You Are

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  • Carolingian Empire: ( 9th century): they wanted to reaffirm classical art in order to emulate the Roman Empire so they started a systematic recovery is carried out. Palaces, cathedrals and monasteries were being built again.

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Arte otoniano - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

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  • The Saxons or Otonians ( 9-10th century): they built abbeys and cathedrals inspired by the Carolingians. The innovations were the galeries or tribunes as well as the alternation of support between pillars and collums.

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Islamic

( 8-15th century)

It developed in the Iberian Peninsula and there are still traces and and fortresses as well as urban layout. A common feature is the use of water and towers, they also created new architetural types such as mosques and baths.

The ornamentation creates an atmospehere through light and colors, they are based in geometric shapes.

La mezquita de Córdoba, un recinto religioso único en el mundo

Romanesque

( 10-12th century )

Is associted with the Normans, the term was coined in 19th century, because of the political inestability the feudal lords fortified the palaces and cities transforming them into castles.

Romanesque architecture - Wikipedia

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As a consequence of the evangelization the Romanesque spread through Europe with a huge presence of monasteries, abbeys, hospitals… . Religious buildings are books made of stone and by large masses and heavy proportions, its based on the use of semicircular arch and the Roman vaults .

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The order of Cluny contributed to the spread among its new foundations giving special importance to prayer and lithurgical offices.

Abadía de Cluny - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Abadía de Cluny III | 321musine

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Gothic

( 12-16th century )

ENSEÑ-ARTE: ARBOTANTES

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It is considered as the art of barbarians, they tested a novel system cosnisting on reinforcing the Roman vault with diagonal ribs, this allowed the walls to be more opened so more light could came in. The grat innovation of this style was the ogival arch.

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  • Cathedrals: they were a testing ground for architectural experimentation including pointed arches and ribbed vaults, the pointed arch meant almost total elimination of the walls, The plan follows the habitual basilical tradition with parallel naves. The transept moves towards the centre, increasing the development of the ambulatory , radial chapels and apses. There is an external shoring system by buttresses, pinacles and needles.
8 of the Best Gothic Cathedrals | Architectural Digest
  • Civil buildings: town halls, stately palaces, universities, fortresses, bastions, bridges, bell towers, shipyards were built during thiis time. There is an abundance of comercial markets ans buildings for professional guilds.
Palacio Ducal de Venecia - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Renaissance

( 15-16th century )

El hombre de Vitruvio no sé si existe, ni me importa.

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The church suffers a great crisis that leads to the schim os the West. The society exalts the human being and his capacity to dominate Nature. Roman works can still be seen and scientific perspective is discovered, symmetry and proportion were a basic.

The new architecture had to be rationally understandable formed by planes according to clear and deciphere numerical proportions.

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Archivo:Filippo Brunelleschi, cutaway of the Dome of Florence Cathedral  (Santa Maria del Fiore).JPG - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

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  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377- 1446): rediscovered the laws of perpective by formulating the bases of mathematical perspective and applying it to architecture. With him the architect was intellectual. his best known work is the dome of Florence´s cathedral.
Museo degli Innocenti - Florence | Inexhibit
Hospital of the innocents

The Hospital of the innocents was the first building where the system of proportions was put into practice.

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Palacio Rucellai: Que ver, horario y ubicación en Florencia
Rucellai palace

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  • Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472): one of the greatest in theory and practice, his works were oriented to proportion.
Basílica de Santa María Novella en Florencia: 24 opiniones y 135 fotos
Santa Maria Novella

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Malatestian Temple

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The façade is reminiscent of a triumphal arch.

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  1. Mannerism: it mainteined the classical architectural norms but with variations or derivations.
Mannerist architecture | HiSoUR - Hi So You Are
  • Andrea Palladio ( 1508-1580 ): in his book he studied ancient Roman architecture, he designed his villas using numerical systems of proportionality for the rooms, he adapted the central body of the house to the forms os the temple topped by a pediment.
Basílica de San Giorgio Maggiore - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
San Giorgio
File:Church of the Redentore (7251821740).jpg - Wikimedia Commons
Redentore
Villa Capra - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
villa capra
  • Michelangelo (1475-1564 ): he was an sculptur, painter and architect. He illustrates the transition between Reinassance and Mannerism. In the Laurenziana library he alternated curves and right angles, concave and convex shapes.
ArteLeonardo School - Florence, Italy - - Curso de Arte Florencia Italia ,  Cursos de Arte Florencia Italia , Curso Pintura Florencia Italia , Cursos  de Pintura Florencia Italia , Escuela Pintura Florencia Italia , Academia  Pintura Florencia Italia ,
Laurenziana library

Baroque

( 17-18th century )

Linked to the monarchy, aristocracy and the Church, it emerged as propaganda and glorification of power in the formation of national states. Its goal was to make maximum possible of light, colour, space, and details.

It´s a spatial liberation of tradition that begun with the mannerists, the main focus was on the visual effects and decoration and the line between reality and illusion was blurred. Fantasy, mutability, scenography effects, asymmetry, lights, movement and space played a real big part in this style.

Arquitectura barroca | HiSoUR Arte Cultura Historia
  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini ( 1598-1680 ): architect, sculptor and painter, he worked for seven popes gaining a lot of succes and recognition. His works pursued the emotional impact, he used warm, shimmering colors and plays with contrast, his architecture mlted into sculpture to recreate art. He designed the Vatican square with an elliptical and trapezoidal shape representing the maternal arms of the Church.
Entrega 3 / 19.04.10 / Obra de Arquitectura. Caso de Estudio: Plaza de San  Pedro, por Gian Lorenzo Bernini - Casiopea
  • Francesco Borromini ( 1599-1667 ): his work was based on simple geometry like triangle, circles and ellipses. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane is a great example of his work, the ellipse on the plan marks the main axis. In the Palazzo Spada he created a false perspective making an 8 meter long hallway appear 37 meters.
✓ San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane - Ficha, Fotos y Planos - WikiArquitectura
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
Palazzo Spada - Opiniones de viajeros sobre Galleria Spada, Roma -  Tripadvisor
Palazzo Spada

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  • Rococo (18th century ): is an artistic fashion distinguished by the frivol and superficial decorations faithful to themselves, with the aim of surprising and ostentation. It plays with the contrast of the warm and pretty interiors with the dirty exterior.
2.3. ¿Hay rococó en la arquitectura española? | De la explosión decorativa  a la vuelta a los orígenes: Rococó y Neoclásico: La sensualidad hecha  arquitectura y pintura

Neoclassicism

( 18-19th century )

Neoclassical architecture in Belgium - Wikipedia

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It was confusing and contradictory historical moment where also Romanticism and the Industrial Revolution were starting, it coexisted with late Baroque and Rococo.

The 18th century was also called the Age of Enlightenment with support of academies, the new classicism was the Greco-Latin, we switched again to rational architecture where the dominion of the structural form was crucial.

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It was linked to he public service and educational purposes, this is how the museums were born.

19 th century

Hierro y arquitectura: un material para la Revolución Industrial

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With the industralization the walls were demolished and new construction typologies appeared as well as new materials like glass, cast and iron.

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El Parlamento británico resuelve que el 'fast fashion' es “explotador” e  “insostenible” | Modaes.es

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In rejection to the industriality a desire to evade the reality and past times appeared giving a place to historicism, exoticism and a mixture of styles.

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20th century

  • Art Nouveau- Modernisme: it lasted a real short time because of how expensive it was to create. Some of the important characters of this style were Antonio Gaudi, William Morris, Victor Horta and Charles Renie Mackintosh.
Seminario revive la obra del destacado arquitecto catalán Antoni Gaudí -  Cooperativa.cl
The Alice in Wonderland effect of Glasgow School of Art Mackintosh building

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  • Expresionism (1910-1924): it distorts the rational form to express the spirit, it didn´t last long because of the expensive materials that were used. Bruno Taut and Erich Madelsohn were recognited from this style.
Arquitectura expresionista - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
Características del expresionismo

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  • Cubism, Futurism ( early 20th century ): the cubism eliminates the separation between interior and exterior and the most recognized architect was Le Corbusier. Futurism translates architecture into movement where the technology of machines play a great role.
Cubismo, geometría y fragmentación en el arte a principios del XX | Moove  Magazine
Arquitectura futurista de los 70': Fotografías de un mundo moderno con  tintes de ciencia ficción | ArchDaily México

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  • Constructivism (1917-1930 ): it rejects the excess of decorative elements, it was based on simplicity, geometry, shared spaces, light and poor materials.
Constructivismo, la arquitectura vanguardista rusa | La Córnea Cubista
  • Neoplaticism (1917-1942): orthogonal composition using planes, straight lines and pure colors. The main characters were Piet Mondrian, Theo van Doesburg and Gerrit Rietveld.
Le Corbusier, Alfred Roth y el color
Ana Sofía Pineda Guerrero - Piet Mondrian - Historia del arte y  Neoplasticismo

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Modernism (1919-1933): rationalism that pursued functionality, industrialisation, seriality and economy by means of elementary volumes, clean planes and no decorations. The most important architects were Staatliches Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe.

Le Corbusier | Obras más importantes | Villa Savoye - Culturavia
Mies Van Der Rohe | Tag | Plataforma Arquitectura

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  • Contemporary architecture (1950-2021): the dichotomy is or continuity or revision, during the first decades a lot of complex proposals were made. In the 50s and 60s the continuists understood arachitecture as a sculptural object and function must be adapted to the needs of the human being. Since 1960 architecture is much more theorical and practical.
Flashback: Hearst Tower / Foster + Partners | Plataforma Arquitectura